Decline and fall of Pyla-Koutsopetria!

Looking at the artifacts that have been left behind in Room 1 can tell us a very interesting tale.  There were some twelve bronze coins found as well as three bronze coin fragments.  These coins were found during excavation of the site in the years 1993 and 1999.  These coins were found at such depth using the stratigraphy chart where the first coins were found in Phase 3 at an elevation of ca. 900-840 and the rest were in the other two Phases; Phase 2 and Phase 1.  I find interesting the iron nails that were discovered across Room 1. These were found in the lower points of the Phase 4 stage of the digging, in the D9 level which is that of 947-862, 944-900.  Below this level were found more nails that go throughout Phase 3 and Phase 2 which is where it seemed much of the nails and nail fragments were found.  The third pieces of evidence that I want to talk about before I draw my conclusion is that of the amount of the cover tiles that were found in such abundance although it is not too hard to see that they are used throughout a house from this time period.  These cover tiles are found all throughout the dig site for we see them through all the Phases minus Phase 1. Also, found in Room 1 was an abundance of debris which contained large plaster and cement pieces located in the northwest corner.  The northwest corner also had a layer of ashes on the floor which contained a few of the bronze coins.  As mentioned before, a portico which faced north-south in direction, had been found in front of Room 1.  What I am seeing from the evidence is that something had to have happened when the city of Koutsopetria was a thriving port.  One thing that is very interesting in Room 1 is the fact that those who dug this site found in the stratigraphy, a layer of ash in room one in Phase 3 of the stratigraphy which is at 900-840.  Also, most of the nails and tiles were located, not in their own separate piles, but in between the other larger pieces of the artifacts such as that of the layers of the gypsum which is throughout Room 1 in Phase 3 specifically.  From this I get that the event that could have happened was that the port city of Koutsopetria was attacked at some point in its past by any number of people that were near this city.   One thing that I find interesting is that layer of ash that was found to be in Room 1.  There could be several reasons why an ash layer was left, but evidence shows that this may not have just been an accident.  The one thing that perplexes me is that so many bronze coins were found in the room; it got me thinking that these were what remained from the people of this place having to get out of there very quickly.  There is this destruction all around and everything having been destroyed; there are destroyed nails that were used to hold up the top of the house.  This house may have even been looted by those that were attacking the city, which then led to the house being destroyed by, possibly, arson.  The destruction is very plausible in my view. But, of course, someone else could look at all this evidence and come up with their own conclusion of what happened here.  The job and responsibility we are given, is to sift through all the evidence and make the best assumption that we can from the debris.

By Ryan McKeehan

In the Byzantine period a human settlement flourished along the trade-rich coast of Cyprus, only to falter under the sands of time. In excavations held over the last two decades, a large housing complex was found under the blustery fields along the sea. Within the context of a the first storey of a this complex we find “room one,” a large rectangular quadrant rife with material remains. Within this room we find specie of currency strewn across the floor, found all across the room. Combined with the coins, there are pieces of ornate designs along with nails, either indicating a large piece of furniture, or perhaps floral ceiling tiles held up by a support beam. Cookware within the room is of high quality and design. It is clear that the inhabitants of this community were of means and able to organize a gradual move to another residence with ease. It is unclear why a rich household would abruptly abandon their villa by leisurely choice, as they had accumulated their wealth such far and were most likely remiss to lose it.

Considering this, it is logical to conclude that the residents were coerced by some sort of event which led them to conclude that abandoning their mansion on the sea coast was beneficial to their health. Many theories for the sudden migration have been proposed, such as invasions, earthquakes, pestilence, or a combination of the aforementioned. Cyprus as an island in the Eastern Mediterranean was a meeting and fighting place between cultures and religions, certifying the possibility of the first one. It is an island that lies along a faultline between Europe and Africa which makes it particularly prone to earthquakes. However, I’d like to elaborate on the notion of pestilence.

Ports and ships are vectors of disease due to the human contact of the sailors with individuals in various ports for reasons of commerce or otherwise, and vermin can crowd ships or hide in steerage. Food stores gone bad also are especially prone to carrying bacteria. This settlement, along the coast, a small strategic port between two historic regions of Cyprus, was a perfect target for plague. Low standards of hygiene and a small population serving as a stop for merchants in transit would destroy most of the population and infect travelers as well as the few that managed to escape. While too late for Justinian’s Plague, it is nonetheless an intriguing suggestion for the sudden flight. The rich individuals that inhabited this villa perhaps came into contact with merchandise but not the lowly sailors off of the ships would be the last to contract the plague, with the education to recognize warning signs and the means to leave quickly.

Essentially, this is why I view this as the most likely- there would be more structural damage and less consistency in the structure if this had been an earthquake. The layout of the room was rather organized with various sectors of the room serving different purposes. Surely this would have shifted in the course of an earthquake. If this had been an invasion, the invaders would have either looted and pillaged the residence, leaving nothing or very little behind of value, which is not true due to the presence of many and ornate equipment on the floor, or they would have left this particular house alone in order to preserve the structure for their own reappropriated purposes. The latter outcome is not clear as it appears that no real change in purpose happened, and the setup was mostly left alone. Perhaps this could be offset if the invaders had left the specimens there, but since the things left are consistent with the original purpose of the room (oven fire, tables etc.) and coins in the Greek style, it might be hasty to assume this. The spectre of pestilence explains both the simple abandonment in an abrupt timeframe as well as the intact nature of the recovered artifacts.

By Daniel R. Collins

Room 1 was a part of a Christian community at Pylo-Koutsopetria in consideration of the Christian cross symbols on a number of gypsum and tile fragments. The room reflects the Christianization of the Late-Antique world. The dating of the room would likely lie in the late 5th century A.D., when a significant amount of the population of the Mediterranean world practiced Christianity, although it did not represent a majority of the followers of religion in the Late-Antique world. The building was likely related to the nearby church in relation to the number of Christian symbols in the room, perhaps it was used for storage. However, it is more likely the room was used for habitation; the objects found on the floor include bowls and the base fragments of glass vessels. In addition, the window fragments, which would allow air into the room, designate it as a place where people would want fresh air. These two pieces of evidence, which show the former presence of food in the building and temperature control (windows), show that people lived in this building until its abandonment. At some point, the windows were plastered with gypsum fragments. In an attempt to keep warm, the inhabitants would have sealed up open areas in the structure to keep the heat in the building. Furthermore, several coins were found on the floor as well, perhaps the occupants of the building were wealthy. If so, it provides an interesting story of Christianization of the people living there. Early Christianity was anti-materialistic, rejecting high social status, ambitions of power and wealth. For a rich family to convert to a religion that rejects their way of life is intriguing. Perhaps by the time of this building’s life, the principles of Christianity had changed, allowing the ownership of wealth in the faith. The building itself consisted of two floors, a ground floor, and a second floor above. The west wall supports the presence of a second floor, which is thick and greatly more strengthened than the other walls. Plus, the presence of nails, cement and tile fragments found on the floor show the probability that they came from a second floor. It is likely that the nails were used for support of the roof as pieces of wood were found in the debris. An earthquake likely caused the abandonment and fall of building. An earthquake would have been powerful enough to cause the collapse of the roof and second floor onto the ground floor. The collapse is supported by presence of many nails, wood, tile, and gypsum fragments in the center of the room. In addition, the presence of earthquakes is frequent throughout the region due to tectonic activity. The presence of coins in the room indicates that salvaging the building was near impossible. Also, an event such as an earthquake is quick and unexpected, leaving no time for the occupants to gather their valuables and flee the building. In conclusion, the existence of the Christian crosses and amount of money found in Room 1, point to an inhabited building of wealthy Christians. The practices of early Christianity rejected forms of wealth and in this building there were wealthy Christians. Such a change in practices and principles reflect to the cultural and religious transformation of the Late-Antique world.

By Nick Headland

 

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A Junior Historian in Cyprus

Why study history? That is the one big question most history majors are forced to answer time and time again. The second I identify myself as a history major I know at least one person in the room will feel the need to inform me of their negative views of my major. To a certain degree, I understand. Far too often, this person had a high school U.S. history teacher whose tests consisted of only names and dates they could never quite remember. Now, they cannot imagine why anyone would want to dedicate four years, if not more, of their life to just memorizing names and dates. Well, they are right. No one wants to do that! Memorizing names and dates sounds terribly boring. What they are missing, however, is that is not what a history major, or anyone studying the past, does. These people study the intricate lives of people and societies, not just names and dates. I study history because I love people, and through history I can learn more about them. In Cyprus I did just that.

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The 2015 Messiah College field team exploring an ancient fort in Larnaca, Cyprus

I chose to travel to Cyprus for a variety of reasons; the chance to learn about archaeology, have new experiences, and receive college credit. The biggest reason, however, was the opportunity to study Cypriot history where it occurred. How often does an undergraduate get the chance to visit and explore the society and culture they are learning about? Most of my undergraduate career has been dedicated to reading secondary sources and rummaging through boxes in archives. As I sat reading in my room, a library, or archives I often felt disconnected from my sources. I still enjoyed my work, and the distance helped me limit bias in my research, but the context of my work was lacking. So, I did what any junior historian would do. I packed my bags and traveled to the Mediterranean for three weeks, and it was a trip like no other. In the field, I spent long hours learning efficient excavation techniques, like the importance of GPR and GPS.   In the museum, I contributed to the analysis of artifacts found in the field. I saw how these artifacts, like an amphora handle or tableware fragment, could be used to understand the history of our sites. From our work, I was able to learn and appreciate more of Cyprus’ rich history. One of the most striking realizations I had while examining artifacts was the amount of cross-cultural communication present in Cyprus. From our sites it is easy to notice the heavy amount of ancient Roman and Greek influence. Similarly, I also noticed this in my conversations with the people in Cyprus. During our journey we met many refugees and other European immigrants and travelers who proved that Cyprus remains a very connected society. Living in Cyprus and interacting with the people and culture there gave me a clear understanding of and appreciation for the country’s history.

Two students sit on a bench at the Cypriot Border

Two students sitting on a bench at the crossing point

This three-week course taught me practical skills in archaeology and immersing oneself in history. In our pre-course work I studied the history of Cyprus in books and documentaries, but nothing could compare to living in Cyprus. I came to the island as an outsider, ready to learn and dig through the dirt for artifacts. I left the island with a better sense of what studying a living and changing society really entails. Books and documents can only teach you so much; visiting ancient sites and connecting with people who lived through Cyprus’ history immensely expanded on their contents. This course will be one of the most influential courses in my college career and I could not be more grateful for it. Goodbye Cyprus, and thank you for all of the great memories and friendships. I hope to be back soon.

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Reflections

13JUN15

It is an interesting phenomenon that only once we return to the context in which we left that we can measure how we have been changed by the journey. I have experienced this feeling many times in my life, every return trip home from the military, every reunion with an old friend from my pre-military, and now even pre-Messiah life. And yet, this time coming home is somehow different still, perhaps because what felt like an exciting weekend worth of time was in reality close to a month, or because I spent so much time so far outside my normal operating tempo, both geographically and academically, that I haven’t felt yet the magnitude of my experiences.

I am tremendously grateful for this opportunity, experiencing a new world in so many ways, but also one that is familiar to me; the world of the Orthodox Church. I don’t think in any of my travels I have felt at ease in a new environment like I did in Larnaca. I honestly have no idea why this would be, there are so many reasons why I should be bewildered by my visit to Cyprus; proximity to the Middle East, a writing and language largely unfamiliar to me, and a group of perfect strangers as companions. And yet, perhaps by the grace of God alone, we instantly bonded, not only with each other as students abroad, but with the people around us throughout the city. I’m not sure if this is commonplace when students travel to other countries with the primary directive to go forth and learn about the people, but it was a unique experience for me, one that I would readily repeat, if not in Cyprus necessarily under the auspices of archaeology, but as an American student in another country, eager to engage with another culture.

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Perhaps because Cyprus has such a rich history, the people were more than willing to talk to us about the island’s past when we mentioned that was what we were there to study. The demeanor of many restaurant and shop owners in town changed dramatically when they learned we were not there primarily to vacation. Having never experienced this sort of connection with a person before, I still find it remarkable, and wish we could have spent more time before coming back home. As an example, many people we talked to knew of Pyla, but only the older Cypriots we struck up conversation with tended to know there was archaeological work to be done there. Almost everyone asked at some point what we had found, from the old man working in the hotel lobby to the waiter and Alexandros. For me at least, it was difficult to explain the nature of our work, doing GPR survey instead of actually excavating, and although my message may have been misinterpreted many times, I detected an air of gratefulness from those we talked to. Instead of being indignant or upset that foreigners were in their land, inspecting their history as I would have thought, they were glad that someone was taking the time to learn their stories and share their past. In returning, I have a renewed motivation to work with people every corner of the world, and a better, broader understanding of academics outside my own field. For this, I don’t think I will ever be the same, and I am happy for it.

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The Cypriot Experience: A Final Reflection

My time on Cyprus has come to an end. As a lay on my bed, over 8,963 kilometers from the place I called home for the last three weeks, I’m reflecting on all the things I learned and all the ways this island has changed me. I want to come to a place where I can clearly explain to anyone just how meaningful this experience was instead of giving them a classic two dimensional response like “it was so awesome.” I think the best way to make meaning of my time on Cyprus is to go back to the beginning – that is, to go back to what I thought I know about the island and myself before I embarked on this adventure and compare that to what I actually know now.

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So what were the things I thought I knew about Cyprus? First, I knew that archaeology and history mattered more to these people than to other people in western countries like the Unites States, and that these subjects greatly contributed to how Cypriots actually perceived themselves in the modern world. Second, I knew that Cypriots were a deeply divided people plagued by ethnic disputes between the Greeks and Turks – disputes which eventually resulted in the division of the island between North and South.

I knew all of this because I read a book written by Cypriot native and Cambridge ethnographer, Yiannis Papadakis, called Echoes from the Dead Zone. Going to Cyprus was the first chance I’ve ever had to visit one a historical places I’ve read about, so I made sure not to waste the opportunity. Instead of letting my excitement get the best of me because I was finally at some of fascinating places I read about, I tried my best to test the veracity of Papadakis’ conclusions (especially since it’s been almost two decades since he started research for his book). This is what I found:

Archaeology and history do still play a major role in the daily lives of Cypriots; however, if I’m being honest, I doubted this at times. Partly because I didn’t realize how gradual a process archaeology can be. For example, our group collected and organized data during this trip. That means we performed geophysical survey under the scorching sun (the results of which we won’t see until at least next year), washed and catalogued artifacts, and helped the PKAP supervisors enter artifacts into PKAP database. This is not the sexiest part of archaeology, folks, and at times I wondered what all this apparent busy work was for. Yet, when I saw the archaeological museums in Larnaca, Nicosia, and Paphos, when I saw how private and public museums were using their collection to make sophisticated arguments about the political and social realities of modern Cyprus, when I talked to the natives and they assumed I knew detailed intricacies about the island’s past, and when I read the latest PKAP volume and saw how the team used data to make arguments – well, it was then that I realized I was contributing in a small way to a larger, more multi-faceted, and more impactful field of study than I had initially imagined; a field of study which still mattered to Cypriots.

Setting up a grid for surface survey on the bluff of Vigla

Setting up a grid for surface survey on the bluff of Vigla

Okay, so Papadakis is 1 for 1 so far, but what about his read on the people themselves? Are the people still divided? Are the events of the 60s and 70s still as raw for Cypriots as they were when Papadakis wrote his book?

Unfortunately I can’t give any qualified answers to this question. I didn’t grow up in Cyprus, and, even though I did talk to numerous amounts of natives and tourist during my time in Larnaca, they’re only a fraction compared to the amount of people Papadakis spoke with. Nevertheless, I definitely did observe some patters during my conversations.

For instance, almost all the tourists, foreign residents, and Cypriots under the age of 40 that I talked with seemed to want to move on from the past. They desired a solution to the problem instead of discussion about past wrongs. The problems these people had with the North didn’t stem from nationalism, ethnic hatred, or personal vendettas. Instead, they were frustrated with practical and principled issues like the amount of military troops present in the North or having to feel like foreigners in the Northern half of their own country.

Yet, these are largely the perspectives of individuals who haven’t been directly affected by the events of the late 20th century. Things are different when actual loss is involved. One of the younger Cypriots that I talked to put it well: “The Turks? I don’t mind them. But ask someone whose house they took in 74 and I’m sure you’ll get a different answer.” And he was right. I could see the pain in the eyes of the people I spoke with who experienced having to flee their homes when the Turks invaded. I had several people tell me that the Turks and Greeks could never live together again, and by the looks in their eyes I believed it – at least for them.

A picture from the National Struggle Museum in Nicosia  ,Cyprus

A picture from the National Struggle Museum in Nicosia, Cyprus

As the island continues to globalize, and Cypriots start to intermarry with non-natives, I’m curious to see if they Greek-Turk tension will become less central to the division problem. I met a lot of people from these types of mixed families, and they seemed much more relaxed about the whole issue. If, as Papadakis said, one of the biggest reasons for conflict was unbridled nationalism, what will happen as nationalities continued to get blurred? One of the natives told me while I was there that the population of Larnaca is very different now than it was 15 years ago. Another 15 years could change the makeup of the island, and the conversation, completely.

— James

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Breaking Bread

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Our restauranteur friend on our last night in Cyprus.

We were leaving Cyprus in barely twelve hours, and rather than packing I was here, a small villa in a suburb of Larnaca, with new friends. Tossing salad greens. Layering ham and red pepper, white cheddar and apple slices. Crowding small tables with platters of food as American and British accents mingled gaily. At the Anglican church that morning we had met these dear people and they invited us to share lunch with them. Since we arrived before the food did, we had enough time to share introductions and then dive right into preparations for our late lunch. I fully think that it is all well and good to simply talk with others, but once you walk into their kitchen to prepare and eat food together your relationship with them is taken to a vastly different level. How is it that I could be thousands of miles away from America and yet feel so at home?

Actually, that question may have been the best theme of my trip to Cyprus as a whole.  I have lived for a semester in Europe previous to this trip and never encountered people as friendly as the people of Cyprus.  From the many folks who stopped by to chat while we slack-lined, to the group of friends who invited me to watch the Champions League Final with them, to the inquisitive young people at my favorite cafe, I have been astounded at the warmth and hospitality extended to me personally and our group as a whole.  I have lived these last few years in an academic environment in which it is easy to focus on one’s own career and not pay attention to the broader world.  Transience can be a powerful incentive to neglect those around at any given time because “I’ll never see them again so why does it matter?”  Our trip to Cyprus has reminded me of the beauty to be found in simple human interactions, and the joy that I feel when someone takes an interest in me. The owner of a restaurant five minutes from our hotel certainly did not need to learn all of our names, but I can’t say how much his efforts were appreciated.  Humans crave connections and a feeling of familiarity.  When I looked up from our last meze dinner to be greeted by name, for that moment I belonged in that circle of friends old and new, American and Cypriot.

My parents asked me after I got back why I use expressions like “I left part of my heart there,” and I did my best to explain it to them.  When I visit somewhere for a decent length of time, I become invested in the people and places around me.  Before the trip I would have thought that this level of connection would be very much less than for the place that I lived for four months, due to the length of the visit.  But by the time I left the island, I discovered that that assumption was not at all the case.  We were only in Cyprus for three weeks, and yet I was (and am) amazed at the feelings of sadness that I felt leaving.  I would venture that a huge majority of my connection to the island is due to the simple conversations I shared there.  None of them were groundbreaking, or filled with life-changing concepts.  Yet it was because of the people that I came to know on this trip — native Cypriot, ex-pats on the island, administrators, and even fellow students — that I learned about the beauty of inhabiting one’s own place in the world.  Yes, I grew professionally in my knowledge of archaeological concepts and practices because of the work that I did in Cyprus (see my previous post for more details), but the trip was far more than an academic venture.  I witnessed the fellowship of breaking bread with these people, and my understanding of my role in the world shall never be quite the same.

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Looking Back

June 12, 2015

As we approached the final week, returning home was still a very distant thought. Until other students started saying things like “this is the last time we will ….” or “can you believe that there’s only …. days left?!” I dreaded thinking these things. Cyprus is so different than anything I have ever experienced, with a new environment, unfamiliar language, new tasks and all with new people. But somehow in a mere three weeks I became so comfortable there that I didn’t want to go back to my old comfort zone in the United States. Before living in Larnaca, I’ve never lived in a town, crossing the streets with the chaotic traffic used to be terrifying, but I really began to appreciate the convenience of being able to walk just about anywhere. I didn’t want to think about going from the bustling streets during Kataklysmos back to the sleepy green forest which is my actual home. Not that I don’t enjoy being home, it’s just that home is different and I’ve become attached to the new kind of different I have found in Cyprus.

It really started to hit me on our last Saturday when most of the students journeyed to Pafos on our own. I was impressed with our ability to navigate the bus routes from one end of the country to the otheFullSizeRender (1)r. When I first came to Cyprus, I was nervous to go to the bakery by myself, now I was traveling to the western side of the island! Even though it was a new place where we haven’t been working, I thought that it was a good summary of our trip. We spent the majority of our time at a very large, excavated and famous Pafos Archaeological Park. It gave me a sense of the big picture of the work we have been doing in the Pyla-Koutsopetria project. I hope that someday archaeologists can use the GPR I helped with to excavate walls and roads like the ones in Pafos. It made me feel like we were working towards a goal, and this made me proud to have had the chance to contribute.

Throughout my time in Cyprus I’ve had family and friends back in the States message me on Facebook or try to text me to ask about how the archaeological work was going. They would ask if we were finding anything. Each time I would have to explain that we couldn’t obtain permission to excavate and that we were doing other kinds of technical work from the surface like GPR and GPS. Not wanting to disappoint I would always adIMG_0247d in that we couldn’t go what seemed like a single meter without finding pieces of ancient pottery. Their excitement in hearing this always reminded me of the first time I went out to the site and saw it with my own eyes. Even though we didn’t actually dig, and couldn’t actually see  what the GPR was depicting underneath the ground, just being able to handle ancient ceramics was a unique experience. Sometimes I would take a step back while looking at a piece of a plate or bowl and think about how someone thousands of years ago used to eat off of that. This hit home for me because at home I too eat off of handmade ceramics that are made in a similar fashion to the ones I found at the site. Now that I’m home, I walk into my father’s ceramic studio and I am instantly reminded of the ceramic debris at Pyla-Koutsopetria. Who knows, maybe someday far in the future an archaeologist will discover pieces of something my dad or I have made.

Not only have we learned how to do archaeological work, we also learned so much about the modern day living people of Cyprus. I have a greater insight on the diversity on the island as well as how people live their daily lives on the island. Right up to our last day we were interacting with locals. That morning at Saint Helena’s Anglican Church we befriended some Cypriots who immigrated from Britain. Elizabeth, a long time member of that church, invited us to her home for lunch along with some of her other friends. Some of  us girls helped her caretaker prepare the food and when we sat to eat we had good conversations about Cyprus, and they even openly discussed the Cyprus problem. It was very interesting to hear their different opinions. Having people openly talk about political problems among strangers is not a common occurrence in the United States, but it is something I have begun to see as being normal in Cyprus. I will miss the generosity and hospitality I have encountered in Cyprus.

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As the trip came to a close, I also realized how sad it will be to part ways with the other students. After living with them for three weeks, a group of former strangers had become close friends. In the beginning of the trip we would joke that it actually took us a week to travel there and that every day felt like a longer time than it actually was. Looking back on it, it does seem like we were there forever because so much has happened in such a small amount of time. But at the end it went by too fast. As a group we discovered how valuable people are to the whole experience. We felt like we had an enriched experience as we became friends and also made friends with locals. To ease our separation from each other and the island, we have already begun discussing a reunion at Messiah where we can attempt to make some of the delicious foods we have been spoiled with in Cyprus. We might just have to come back to the island for the real thing.

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Digging In

I’m state side and not happy about it. Cyprus was an amazing learning experience that I will always be thankful for. I learned about how people react with foreigners and what working in a historical field of another country is like. It was all eye opening and quite the ride.

The most awesome part of the trip was the people. The people in Cyprus were so open. You start with some Greek words to make them understand you’re not just here for holiday, but you have some interest in getting to know the culture. This is all you need to open the people up to a conversation. Once you show an interest, they will gladly share their personal stories and opinions with you. While in Cyprus, we stood out, as most Americans do. But it made us interesting. People knew we were different and wanted to get to know us or find out what we were doing so far from home. The man in the photo with us, Kostas, learned all 10314467_10206909141910851_4884449911203093636_nof our names at the beginning of the trip and remembered them when we came to visit him on our last day in Cyprus. It was amazing! We were so excited that we had to take a picture with him before we left so that we could look back and remember him. A big part of our education was the people. Everyone there wanted to educate us in some way. Whether through their own stories or through the museums and churches that were in the country. There was always something for us to learn from.

The archaeology side of the trip was another learning experience. Studying the artifacts helped me appreciate the country more and the people. I felt more intertwined with them because I was there working on their history. I felt it gave me more of a bonding experience because it sparked my interest in seeing the historical sites and studying the ancient oil lamps and the amphora handles that was in the museum. It gave me a greater appreciation of Cyprus and what it held in its past and its present.

 

If you told11330000_10204726445376203_7006204656127065098_n me that my group had the chance to go again, I would jump on the next plane in a heartbeat. I learned so much, but I am nowhere near done with my education.

 

 

 

 

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